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coreos-cloudinit not found. Could not validate config.

02 Jul

When Installing coreos, this is a common problem depending on the ‘live CD’ used:


./coreos_install.sh -d /dev/sdb -C stable -c ~/cloud-config.yaml
./coreos_install.sh: coreos-cloudinit not found. Could not validate config. Continuing...\

All manner of ‘solutions’ appear on the internet, actually it is simply stating that ‘coreos-cloudinit’
is missing.

The reason being that the so called install scripts are actually not fully integrated.

Simply following the instructions at :
http://www.formatccolon.com/installing-coreos/

will ONLY work IF you use a liveCD that contains ‘coreos-cloudinit’

Get in the prerequisites first:

So:
1. Build your cloud-config.yaml BUT validate it first at:

https://coreos.com/validate/

Then ensure that you perform the following BEFORE attempting the installation

your working directory:
wget https://github.com/coreos/coreos-cloudinit/archive/master.zip
unzip master.zip
cd coreos-cloudinit-master/
./build
cd bin
#ensure you put the binary on a path where it can be found
cp coreos-cloudinit /usr/bin/coreos-cloudinit

Then cd back to your original working directory where you have:
coreos-install.sh (or whatever you called it)


./coreos-install.sh -d /dev/sdb -C stable -c ~/cloud-config.yaml
Checking availability of "local-file"
Fetching user-data from datasource of type "local-file"
Downloading the signature for http://stable.release.core-os.net/amd64-usr/current/coreos_production_image.bin.bz2...
2015-07-02 20:12:43 URL:http://stable.release.core-os.net/amd64-usr/current/coreos_production_image.bin.bz2.sig [543/543] -> "/tmp/coreos-install.GLOoJSUz0c/coreos_production_image.bin.bz2.sig" [1]
Downloading, writing and verifying coreos_production_image.bin.bz2...
2015-07-02 20:14:03 URL:http://stable.release.core-os.net/amd64-usr/current/coreos_production_image.bin.bz2 [196978663/196978663] -> "-" [1]
gpg: Signature made Thu Jun 18 17:08:09 2015 HKT using RSA key ID xxxxxxxxx
gpg: key xxxxxxxxx marked as ultimately trusted
gpg: checking the trustdb
gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model
gpg: depth: 0 valid: 1 signed: 0 trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u
gpg: Good signature from "CoreOS Buildbot (Offical Builds) "
Installing cloud-config...
Success! CoreOS stable current is installed on /dev/sdb

And that gets you to the next stage.

 

Allwinner (SUNXI) A20 getting two CPU up

30 Dec

In my real work, I need a pre-boxed computer at a throwaway price, something I can walk into a server-room covertly stick inside a server cabinet, power-up and then use as a secured ‘base’ from where I can find out ‘what the hell is going on’ (all with the approval of ‘upper management’)

I have been playing about with the various versions of the TV box ‘construct’, what I need is a cheap secure (relatively speaking)
throwaway computer that contains in-bulit WIFI/Ethernet/Bluetooth USB and in a nice sealed case I can fill with epoxy……

Currently I use two units
840A (A20 – dualcore) & 809 III (3188-quadcore)

Enter the 840A TV box

Looking about on the internet you will see the A20 being hacked all over the place ( even at wrt), however when you look a little bit closer you will see that in many of the Kernel startup logs that ONLY ONE CPU is actually enabled and active.

Indeed if you use the ‘released’ SUN-XI code… guess what…. yep only one CPU comes up or you have to start using their ‘closed binary blobs’ for the functionality.(Having worked with some Chinese software developers… I would NEVER allow any Chinese built closed source on my network).

What happened

The Result
Whilst this is still a work in progress we have gotten this far.

[ 0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0
[ 0.000000] Linux version 3.19.0-rc1-00011-g53262d1-dirty (bob@my-virtual-machine) (gcc version 4.6.3 (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.6.3-1ubuntu5) ) #14 SMP Sat Dec 27 13:53:26 HKT 2014
..........
[ 0.000000] CPU: ARMv7 Processor [410fc074] revision 4 (ARMv7), cr=10c5387d
[ 0.000000] CPU: PIPT / VIPT nonaliasing data cache, VIPT aliasing instruction cache
[ 0.000000] Machine model: I12 / Q5 / QT840A A20 tvbox
...........
......
[ 0.001489] CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok
[ 0.001836] CPU0: update cpu_capacity 1024
[ 0.001853] CPU0: thread -1, cpu 0, socket 0, mpidr 80000000
[ 0.001928] Setting up static identity map for 0x403d4b80 - 0x403d4bd8
[ 0.003335] CPU1: update cpu_capacity 1024
[ 0.003341] CPU1: thread -1, cpu 1, socket 0, mpidr 80000001
[ 0.003428] Brought up 2 CPUs
[ 0.003449] CPU: All CPU(s) started in HYP mode.
[ 0.003455] CPU: Virtualization extensions available.

 

Turning USB peripherals BadUSB (A confession……)

08 Aug

There is currently a ‘stink’ about this article:

Turning USB peripherals into BadUSB

These guys appear to have put a quite an amount of research into this subject and attack vector.
However I’m disappointed about how little research and citations of prior work they seem to have included, even if it is not based around USB devices it is still relevant.
Then there is the ‘case’ of the 3rd party publicly available code to reprogram the SAME USB device released BEFORE their presentation.

For Example:
On Hacking MicroSD Cards

Read the rest of this entry »

 

USB Storage devices – embedded Trojan analysis/implementation (USB Nand-Flash)

04 Aug

How we can build powerful analysis tools from Ebay crap….

There is lots of cool scrap available on Ebay, specifically items from video processing companies/telecom companies that sold their scrap to clowns who were supposed to ‘destroy it’ ( you know the ones, who advertise ‘secure destruction’ of equipment).
All you need is a JTAG pod, frequency generator (NE555), multi-tester and a little bit of time.

Background
Back In Jan I threw together a library for reading Nand-flash chips on the Arduino, part of the reason for this was to try to throw together a simple and highly cost-effective way to read Nand-flash chips.

Unfortunately it was a failure due to the read speeds…. BUT….
Read the rest of this entry »

 

USB miners and the Dipo Electronic 19 port 20A USB Hub

20 Nov

This is a 19 port hub with an integral power supply that is capable of reliably supplying MORE than 700mA per port without overheating or becoming a fire hazard.

Dipo  hub , with engineering modifications for reliability

Dipo hub , with engineering modifications for reliability

Some of the Basic specifications:

– Fully 480mb/s at each port
– 16 Front facing Standard A USB ports
– 3 Side facing Standard A
– 1 Master hub connection Standard B for connection to Computing Equipment or other hubs
– Fully fused internally via multiple poly-fuse resettable fuses both on each individual port and on the main power feed to the Ports.
– UK/European standard 3 pin power plug
– Hub runs COOL

Unlike cheaper USB ports that only implement links at USB 1.0 standard (12mb/s speeds but state they are ‘compatible’ with USB 2.0) this is a professional FULL 480 Mb/s port that complies and implements the full 2.0 USB standard. It may also be used to connect to generic USB 1.0 equipment.

The good thing about these hubs is that you can load them up with 19 Bi-Fury miners (around 76 gh/s) and the miners would STILL run as intended.

The supplier is a Chinese company we have been working with, each hub we sell is inspected both at the electrical and electronic levels to ensure the correct functionality of the product.

It can be purchased here:
Razorfishsolutions.com.hk

 
Comments Off on USB miners and the Dipo Electronic 19 port 20A USB Hub

Posted in Android, Arduino, BITCOIN, forensics, FPGA, Linux, PCB Design, Reverse Engineering

 

Bit coin miner from Ebay scrap The Solar debateVIII)

13 Jul

It was not until the start of this year (2013) that there has been such a long run of exponential increases in the bitcoin difficulty.
Current difficulty is 26162876 with a PPS share rate of 0.00000092 BTC (actually it is lower once you consider fees etc)

After mining for a few years using various systems- CPU, GPU, FPGA.. The time has now come to reconsider the situation….
B.F.L have continually failed to deliver what they promised they were experts in…. Power consumption does not match,shipping does not match, quality does not match.
Back in January, they were saying delivery would be in Two months, they are still claiming that all back orders would be cleared before end of September 2013, personally I find this unlikely since they STILL have not shipped any of my orders, and for them to clear the backlog, they should at least have my orders in ‘production'(I’m in the top quarter of their estimated order book).
Plus the number of people who have had new ASIC kit only for it to fail abysmally is rapidly increasing..
I have decided to give them until the middle of August and then I’m pulling the plug on the orders.

Read the rest of this entry »

 

Bit coin miner from Ebay scrap D’oh!!!!(VII)

09 Jul

Its Always good to take a look at past work…

Inparticular the VHDL…. hay it looks ok so it MUST be ok…
FPGA

When I say look at it, I mean from a totally different perspective…
Read the rest of this entry »

 

Bit coin miner from Ebay scrap (VI)

30 Jun

One major issue with generating bitcoins is getting rid of the heat from the crypto hashing engines. This is partially due to poor design of many of the crypto engines, or the incessant need of miners to over-clock the rigs until the errors are in double figures….
However many Bitcoin miners do not take into account the ambient temperature when designing their cooling solutions( and some cooling solutions are just CRAP… blue flashing lights anyone?, radioactive coolant?…. but ..but. is green and it glows in the dark…yep… chicks just dig flashy lights and green coolant.)
Read the rest of this entry »

 

Bit coin miner from Ebay scrap (V)

25 Jun

Nope … we have not ‘given up’
In fact we have made some excellent progress
Read the rest of this entry »

 

Bit coin miner From Ebay scrap (IV)

18 Jun

Overall the results from using the Ebay scrap were positive

The boards are a little long making programming via JTAG difficult, not to mention the 14 Pin IDC connector is not really suitable for a standard 14 pin IDC plug (a fact I discovered AFTER I returned from China with a bag full of parts).

20130618_122614















As we can see it is a little cramped by the JTAG connector (directly inline with a fan), yep I can say officially that even a 12 Volt fan is capable of doing serious damage to finger tips and finger nails.

Caveats

There were a number of issues with the FORA(For-a) video processing boards.

  • After digging about we find that the FPGA core voltage has been fixed at 0.97v
    This is a little low for proper mining
  • We had to strip out an additional component that supported the PCI bus as the part was running from the 3V3 supply.
    Failure to remove it would be driving the chip at 170% of its rating thereby forcing it to dump several hundred mA as heat…
  • Yep We had an Idea that there was something shitty about the power-supply setup…
    The Bellinix modules used are ‘programmable’ via an external sense resistor, problem was that when we replaced the sense resistor NOTHING happened to the supply voltage, in fact completely removing the sense resistor also had no effect.
    * UPDATE 29Th June 2013, we finally tracked this down to a defective Bellinix module…
    We can now adjust the core voltage for the FPGA via a system that reprograms the DC/DC PSU module.

     

    Further delay on the Ebay bitcoin miner (1 Hour……)

    13 Jun

    After finally getting the power supply of the existing miner back on line, we found that the FOR-A
    experimental cards had gone dead.
    In fact Two FOR-A cards had gone dead.
    Read the rest of this entry »

     

    Bit of a delay on the Ebay bitcoin miner

    12 Jun

    Yep…..
    There we are going full swing building another new mining rig, only to getup this morning to find one of the old bitcoin rigs has gone tits up……

    Thanks again to “XILENCE” and their shitty ATX PSU’s.
    Last time I had problems I decided to split out the rigs and dual supply the FPGA’s to avoid any problems.
    Read the rest of this entry »

     

    Bitcoin Miner from Ebay Scrap (Part III)

    09 Jun

    Ok….
    A couple of days ago I posted a screen shot of the Ebay Scrap miner pushing 120MH/s

    Today I have a screen shot at 150MH/s
    Read the rest of this entry »

     

    Building a Bitcoin miner from Ebay Scrap (Part II)

    07 Jun

    Well……
    The time has finally come to Build our bitcoin miner.

    Specification

    • Ebay Scrap FPGA
    • Cost <$100USD
    • Speed >150MH/s
    • UART Interface
    • Standard ATX computer Power supply

    Read the rest of this entry »

     

    Building a Bitcoin miner from Ebay Scrap, with possible option of litecoin conversion

    08 May

    SEO

    I’m planning to do an article on how to convert Ebay scrap FPGA into bitcoin miners.

    Target cost is going to be about $100USD per 200MH/s (cost mostly on the ebay scrap)
    so in the case of this…

    4 FPA rig..

    It would only cost you $400usd!!!!!

    Now obviously it is not going to have the same ‘expert’ polish as this top of the line product.. but what do you want for 400 bucks..

    Yep I know ASICS are coming soon and that Avalon is already on the market.
    This is not a ‘get-rich’ quick scheme
    Rather it is a last ditch attempt for people to have a final dabble in bitcoin, before the shit hits the fan and mining becomes impossible for most ‘normal’ people.
    Who knows this shit may even sell for $250,000USD in 30 years just like the Apple 1

    Litecoin… well lets see what is possible….., but from early experiments it is not cost effective even at $100Us because the KH/s rate is way too low

    So if anyone is interested post a comment, maybe even check out the advertisers.

    The coins?
    Well everyone else does it so I can too…….

     

    Xilence PSU really are quite poor quality.

    16 Apr

    So today I went out and purchased a couple of Xilence PSU (XP500), specifically because they were rated at 30.0A at 3V3.

    We needed a fairly strong 3V3 supply rail to feed a couple of maxim buck converters down to 0.98v for an FPGA project.

    You would think that 3V3@30A would be able to handle such a simple situation.

    Well you would be dead wrong..
    After loading the PSU upto 6A the supply rail dropped to 3v1 we then added another 6A load and the rail hit 2V98 Also the 12V rail began to sag down to 11v8 volts and the 5V rail hit 4V8, even with no loading applied to anything other than the 3V3 rail.

    Considering these supplies are rated at 3V3@30A, we should not see such poor power degradation with what is basically a 12A loading on the 3V3 rail.

    By the time we were at 18A@3v3 the 3v3 rail was below 2v9 and the 12V rail was also in decline.

    Furthermore the power supply started to make a sound as if there was a screw loose in the cooling fan, removal of the load caused the sound to disappear.
    I’m of the mind that something was breaking down inside the PSU whenever the 3V3 supply was loaded.

    OK fine let us contact their support…
    After finally getting their support system to accept the email request and supplying the PSU serial number
    I STILL have NOT had a reply after 7 Days….

    Is the quality of the Xilence PSU bad or is the application unsuitable?
    Well, to put this in perspective, I also purchased a really shitty Chinese made ATX-320T PSU that claims it can supply 3v3@14A, this thing cost less than $11USD(I kid you not)
    After 4 months at an overload of 18A@3v3 the supply rail on the Chinese PSU has dipped down to 3V2 the 12V rail is at 12V2 and the thing is still as quiet as a whisper, plus no magic blue smoke daemon has appeared.

    Recommendation
    Do not EVER buy Xilence PSU’s, it may even be better to purchase that shittly little Chinese brand after all.

    Conclusion
    Xilence PSU’s appear to suck ass so badly that you would NOT want one inside your computer.
    By the way their internal build quality on the PSU is basically ‘Fucking abysmal’, parts of the inline filter are ‘flapping about’ in the air as if it was an afterthought needed to pass the EMI standards.
    Whilst there may be many Xilence the market, such poor power regulation can only lead to seriously stressed computer parts and early failure of equipment.

    Time to return this Xilence crap to the shop and save some serious money.

     

    Bitcoin: A revamp of our XUPV5-LX110T FPGA mining rig (now faster)

    02 Apr

    Since the ASIC order went tits up at Tom’s ASIC fuckfest and BFL STILL have not delivered product, we spent the time working on our existing FPGA miner.

    Improved in every way
    Xilinx development boards are actually very good and it is a testament to the design of the Power-supplies that we managed to push the Bitcoin mining design to 200MH/s ,But why was the board consuming 47W when hashing hit 200MH/s?

    The secondary issue was why the logic would not go faster than 200MH/s, even with improved FIFO & UART communication routines, try as we might I would not work, I had pushed the same FPGA to 250MHZ for another project, so it was unlikely to be clock related.

    A new Beginning
    It now seems that all these issues have now been solved after designing a completely new Power supply with improved layout (we also added two MASSIVE power planes which also act as a heat sink).

    The FPGA design is now consuming 10W-15W per board and we have pushed the core to 370MH/s… yep a single core doing 370Mh/s….

    So where is the power going?
    0v95 Supply is sitting at about 6-7 Amps!!!
    3v3 Supply is consuming about 1 amp, but that can be reduced since we have about 16 diagnostic LED’s strung off the IOAUX power line.
    We may need to try and parallel up a couple of the 0v95 supplies in an attempt to cool the switching FETS down, we could just change the Capacitor/Inductor fet configuration, but that can be a real pain to get working efficiently, far easier to just parallel up a couple of supplies.

    What is the point with ASICS being released soon?
    Well:

  • We just picked up a load of FPGA’s very cheap on Ebay
  • The cost of a single Bitcoin is over $100USD
  • We only need to mine 1.5 coins and the FPGA’s are basically ‘free’
  • Once the FPGA’s can no longer be used to mine Bitcoins, there is Litecoin.
  • Litecoin?
    Yep in good old hacker style, we may have discovered a weakness in the Litecoin system that would allow us to mine without consuming massive amounts of ram.
    We say ‘might’ because we have only looked at the system very superficially, but if we are correct then with a minor performance hit we could limit down the ram size.

     

    bitcointalk.org hardcore-fs

    02 Feb

    We have recently re-gained control of this site, back from an admin-user.
    This person was given the ability to post as the admin of the site.
    A number of forums related to bit-coin (https://bitcointalk.org) have been linked here, these links will remain as will the research.

    Unfortunately, the person involved is still causing mischief on some sites, mainly by reusing certain monikers and requiring payment for the release of them.
    We attempted to re-route the ownership of the accounts via email, but failed.
    The person in question has also been issued a cease and desist letter from our solicitors.

    To make matters more complex these monikers have been in use for several years on other non bit-coin sites and since the SEO connected to these monikers has some value they have also been appearing in Eastern-Europe.

    For the record, most of the technical analysis posted on various bit-coin forums (https://bitcointalk.org) is not under the ownership of the person using the moniker, but rather from a secondary source and then re-worded.
    The plan was to build SEO links of ‘intelligent and useful material’ related to various aspects of bit-coin.

    As regards the email address:
    har***re@hardcoreforensics.com, this is now under control of a different admin.

    Site owner.

     

    Bitcoin Samsung 2440 Host controller

    08 Jan

    As is the way, we were sidetracked into taking a look at getting WiFi working on the Samsung 2440 embedded control board, the idea being that we could have a backup system for when:
    1.HongKong telecom manage to cut the telephone lines.
    2.The shitty little HKT ADSL modem or its PSU burst into flames again, yep it only takes them 3 DAYS to get a replacement to you.
    3.Dock with my mobile phone, since that has unlimited data rate, which means I can cut one ADSL & one router from the mix I am currently using.

    Sadly getting WIFI working on an embedded board is not that easy, EVEN with linux

    Tried downloading ‘compat-wireless-2012-12-17’, but unfortunately the integral bash scripts wont run under busy box on the embedded system.

    Tried downloading Bash for the embedded system, but it won’t compile, instead giving a segmentation error.

    Tried cross compiling the needed wireless libraries… fail……

    It’s not that I cannot figure it out, but rather how much is my time worth to get WIFO working on what is basically a dead out of date underpowered board.

    Solution
    http://www.hardkernel.com/renewal_2011/products/prdt_info.php

    For $89USD+$30USD shipping we can get an up-to-date Quad core samsung4412 at-least 4 times faster than a Pi and with enough memory to run a miner controller for a good many ASIC miner units and it comes with a functioning wireless installation of linux.

     

    Bitcoin FIFO

    31 Dec

    In a previous posting we outlined the use of a FIFO between the Bitcoin engine (SHA256(SHA256(x))) and the communication circuit.
    There have been a number of discussions about the futility of this implementation, along with the posting of various quantities of ‘dubious’ facts used by a number of people to backup the claim of why a FIFO is an exercise in futility.(a little thought into the actual statements, shows a massive & glaring mistake, that shows the same level of ineptitude as the greek governments ability to understand their current situation)

    One key fact in my usage of a FIFO was to separate the Clock circuits of the communication & generation logic, failure to perform this, results in the need to continually adjust the counters used in the UART to match the master clock, this in-turn prevents the UART being “black-boxed”, because the UART needs to be continually re-routed in the logic, each time the clock frequency is changed, this in turn causes continual problems with the routing resources producing “random” results.

    To date the 220MH/s core with the integral FIFO has been performing admirably, so what we are now going to do , is replace the handwritten FIFO VHDL with an integral core that is hardware specific to the virtex5.
    It turns out that those clever people over at Xilinx added extra circuitry to the RAMB32 infrastructure to handle FIFO implementation in the RAM logic, even more interestingly, the FIFO is capable of operating at up to 550Mhz.
    Since we are not actually using all the integral ram inside the Virtex 5, it is about time we replaced our generic VHDL FIFO with this infrastructure. At the very least it is additional logic that will no longer need to be routed to the same extent as it currently is, the only down side is that the minimum sized FIFO we can implement is 512 levels deep….., rather than our current 16 levels in the generic FIFO.

    Let’s dooooo it!!
    We can simulate this modification to death, but that is really not going to give us any insight into the actual results once it is implemented in the logic.

    The first task will be to implement a single clock FIFO to replace the generic implementation.

    After that, we will implement a dual clocked version with dual port ram, this will allow us to separate the clocks for the nonce communication & generation circuits, and if that works then we might start looking at inserting a FIFO BETWEEN the SHA256 generators, again it might be possible to use this to ‘break up’ the logic and increase the speed at which the SHA256 calculations can be operated.

     
     

    Bitcoin controller using YL2440 (Cont.)

    24 Dec

    In our last article, we were of the mind that the YL2440 sucked so badly as a bit-coin miner control board, that it could easily outperform a Dyson Cleaner.

    As is the way, things come to light that change our interpretation of the data.

    It now turns out that the “boot-loader” developed by the Chinese company to pre-load the kernel, was not actually passing the available ram size(64Mb) to the Linux Kernel on boot up.
    For whatever reason, the user configurable settings were not being passed in, as a result the kernel was launching with only 16Mb of ram….. The fact that Linux could even run a system including Python in less that 16Mb of ram ,really is a testament to the design of Linux.

    Python sucks at the best of times, and limiting its available memory only makes it worse.

    New Improved YL2440
    After making some modifications to the Linux kernel and forcing a new command line on boot up,
    we now have the full glorious 64Mb of ram, and boy what a difference it makes.
    No longer do we need to wait 3 minutes for an SSh login, and even the web-front end of the python miner is more responsive.
    Total ram consumed… is now sitting at 20Mb, most of which is being used as buffers.

    Our next task is to try and get the Stratum Mining proxy working, since this will cutdown on the data bandwidth needed by the miner, plus there is a 2% fee reduction with Stratum Mining.

    Once that is done, we will be re-visiting the issue of the RS232 ports and why they are unable to function at 230400 baud.

     

    Bitcoin development rig using a YL2440 as a control system to an FPGA miner

    18 Dec

    The Good News….
    Well, we finally got a fully functional YL2440 up and running a python miner client.
    The good news is that it has not crashed in the last 48 hours, AND we fixed that bloody stupid clock bug…

    The bad news…..
    Unfortunately the bad news is that it sucks ass.

    1. Even though the YL2440 has THREE hardware UARTS , none appear to function with the miner at 230400 Baud
    This is despite the bloody thing running fine IF I plug in a FTDI USB UART connector into the only available USB connection and use that for the python (even worse the data-sheet for the CPU states that “it is capable of running at upto 921kb), but looking into the linux kernel UART code, there is a comment from the programmer about the UART speed multiplication bits being wrong.(9 instead of the 44 shown in the data-sheet)

    2. For some reason there is only 16Mb of ram available to the system, even though the system has 64Mb of ram onboard.(well that is if the shitty ’64mb’ ram chips are not China fakes, that have been re-branded)
    or possibly it’s an error when I ported the linux kernel.
    3. Being an embedded Board, it uses Nand-Flash as storage, unfortunately this does not bode well for the massive log files continually written by the Python miner, specifically it hammers the wear leveling of the Nand-Flash card.

    So the likely-hood of this board ever working for more than one ASIC miner is starting to look rocky.

    I’m going to take a look at the ram issue, because I know linux always performs better with more ram, and just maybe we can rescue this situation.